Records are a new feature in C# 9. Records are special classes that borrow from Structs in that they have value-based equality. You could look at them as a hybrid between the two categories of types. They are more or less immutable by default and have syntax sugar to make declaration easier and more concise. However, the syntax sugar can obscure more standard tasks like changing the behavior of the default constructor. You will probably need to do this for validation in some cases. This article shows you how to achieve this.

Take this simple example class:

It’s clear that if the consumer attempts to create an instance of this class without a valid string, they will get an exception. The standard syntax for creating a record looks like this:

It’s friendly and concise, but it’s not immediately clear how you would validate the string. This definition tells the compiler that there will be a property named InputString, and the constructor will pass the value to that property from a parameter.  We need to remove the syntax sugar to validate the string. Fortunately, this is easy. We do not need to use the new syntax to define our records. We can define the record similar to a class but change the keyword class to record.

Unfortunately, this means we cannot use the non-destructive mutation. The with keyword gives us the ability to create a new version of the record with some properties changed. This means that we do not modify the original instance of the record, but we get a copy of it. This is a common approach with Fluent APIs and Functional Style programming. This allows us to maintain immutability.

In order to allow non-destructive mutation, we need to add the init property accessor. This works similarly to the constructor but is only called during object initialization. Here is a more complete solution that implements the init accessor. This allows you to have shared constructor logic and init logic.

Should Record Constructors Have Logic?

This is a controversial debate and outside the scope of this article. Many people would argue that you should not put logic inside constructors. The design of records encourages you not to put logic in the constructor or init accessor. Generally speaking, records should represent the state of your data at a snapshot in time. You shouldn’t need to apply logic because the assumption is that you know the state of your data at this point. However, much like every other programming construct, there is no way of knowing what use cases may arise from records. Here is an example from the library Urls, which treats URLs as immutable records:

We ensure that we decode the query value when storing it, and then we encode it when we use it as part of a Url.

You could ask the question: why not make everything a record? It seems that there would be pitfalls associated with this, but we are venturing into new territory, and we are yet to map out best-practice for records in the C# context. 


It will take a few years for developers to come to terms with records and lay the ground rules for using them. You currently have a blank slate, and you and are free to experiment until the “experts” start telling you otherwise. My advice is only to use records to represent fixed data and minimal logic. Use the syntax sugar where you can. However, there are apparent scenarios where minimal validation in the constructor may be practical. Use your judgment, discuss with your team, and weigh up the pros and cons. 

Edit: this tweet was edited and corrected thanks to this tweet.

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